For the first four decades after Independence, the country was pursuing a path of development in which the public sector was expected to be the engine of growth. However, the public sector overgrew itself and its shortcomings started manifesting in low capacity utilisation and low efficiency due to over manning, low work ethics, over capitalisation due to substantial time and cost over runs, inability to innovate, take quick and timely decisions, large interference in decision making process etc. Hence, a decision was taken in 1991 to follow the path of Disinvestment.
Period from 1991-92 - 2000-01
The change process in India began in the year 1991-92, with 31 selected PSUs disinvested for Rs.3,038 crore. In August 1996, the Disinvestment Commission, chaired by G V Ramakrishna was set up to advice, supervise, monitor and publicize gradual disinvestment of Indian PSUs. It submitted 13 reports covering recommendations on privatisation of 57 PSUs.Dr R.H.Patil subsequently took up the chairmanship of this Commission in July 2001.However, the Disinvestment Commission ceased to exist in May 2004.
The Department of Disinvestment was set up as a separate department in December, 1999 and was later renamed as Ministry of Disinvestment from September, 2001. From May, 2004, the Department of Disinvestment became one of the Departments under the Ministry of Finance.
Against an aggregate target of Rs. 54,300 crore to be raised from PSU disinvestment from 1991-92 to 2000-01, the Government managed to raise just Rs. 20,078.62 crore (less than half). Interestingly, the government was able to meet its annual target in only 3 (out of 10) years. In 1993-94, the proceeds from PSU disinvestment were nil over a target amount of Rs. 3,500 crore.
The reasons for such low proceeds from disinvestment against the actual target set were:
- Unfavorable market conditions
- Offers made by the government were not attractive for private sector investors
- Lot of opposition on the valuation process
- No clear-cut policy on disinvestment
- Strong opposition from employee and trade unions
- Lack of transparency in the process
- Lack of political will
This was the period when disinvestment happened primarily by way of sale of minority stakes of the PSUs through domestic or international issue of shares in small tranches. The value realized through the sale of shares, even in blue chip companies like IOC, BPCL, HPCL, GAIL & VSNL, however, was low since the control still lay with the government.
Most of these offers of minority stakes during this period were picked up by the domestic financial institutions. Unit Trust of India was one such major institution.
Period from 2001-02 - 2003-04
This was the period when maximum number of disinvestments took place. These took the shape of either strategic sales (involving an effective transfer of control and management to a private entity) or an offer for sale to the public, with the government still retaining control of the management. Some of the companies which witnessed a strategic sale included:
- BHARAT ALUMINIUM CO.LTD.
- CMC LTD.
- HINDUSTAN ZINC LTD.
- HOTEL CORP.OF INDIA LTD. (3 PROPERTIES: CENTAUR HOTEL,JUHU BEACH, CENTAUR HOTEL AIRPORT,MUMBAI & INDO HOKKE HOTELS LTD.,RAJGIR)
- HTL LTD.
- IBP CO.LTD.
- INDIA TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CORP.LTD.(18 HOTEL PROPERTIES)
- INDIAN PETROCHEMICALS CORP.LTD.
- JESSOP & CO.LTD.
- LAGAN JUTE MACHINERY CO.LTD.,THE
- MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD.
- MODERN FOOD INDUSTRIES (INDIA) LTD.
- PARADEEP PHOSPHATES LTD.
- TATA COMMUNICATIONS LTD.
The valuations realized by this route were found to be substantially higher than those from minority stake sales.
During this period, against an aggregate target of Rs. 38,500 crore to be raised from PSU disinvestment, the Government managed to raise Rs. 21,163.68 crore.
Period from 2004-05 - 2008-09
The issue of PSU disinvestment remained a contentious issue through this period. As a result, the disinvestment agenda stagnated during this period. In the 5 years from 2003-04 to 2008-09, the total receipts from disinvestments were only Rs. 8515.93 crore.
2009-10 to 2020-21
A stable government and improved stock market conditions initially led to a renewed thrust on disinvestments. The Government started the process by selling minority stakes in listed and unlisted (profit-making) PSUs. This period saw disinvestments in companies such as NHPC Ltd., Oil India Ltd., NTPC Ltd., REC, NMDC, SJVN, EIL, CIL, MOIL, etc. through public offers.
However, from 2011 onwards, disinvestment activity slowed down considerably. As against a target of Rs.40,000 crore for 2011-12, the Government was able to raise only Rs.14,000 crore. However, the subsequent years saw some improvement and the Government was able to raise Rs. 23,857 crore against a target of Rs. 30,000 crore (Revised Target : Rs. 24,000 crore) in 2012-13 and Rs. 21,321 crore against a target of Rs. 54,000 (Revised Target : Rs. 19,027 crore) in 2013-14. The achieved target dropped to Rs. 24,338 crore against a target of Rs. 58,425 crore in 2014-15. In 2015-16 the Government was able to raise Rs. 32,210 crore against a target of Rs. 69,500 crore (Revised Target : Rs. 25,312 crore) and Rs. 46,378 crore against a target of Rs. 56,500 (Revised Target : Rs. 45,500 crore) in 2016-17. In 2017-18, some steep improvement was seen and the Government was able to raise Rs. 1,00,642 crore against a target of Rs. 72,500 crore (Revised Target : Rs. 1,00,000 crore) and Rs. 87,513 crore against a target of Rs. 80,000 in 2018-19. In 2019-20 the Government was able to raise Rs. 50,294 crore against a target of Rs. 90,000 crore (Revised Target : Rs. 1,05,000 crore, further the Target Revised downward to Rs.65,000 crore) in 2019-20 and raised Rs. 32,742 crore against a target of Rs. 2,10,000 crore (Revised Target : Rs. 32,000 crore in 2020-21.
Further, the achieved target dropped to Rs. 15,440 crore against a target of Rs. 1,75,000 crore (Revised Target : Rs. 78,000 crore in 2021-22.
The NDA Government has set an ambitious disinvestment target of Rs. 65,000 crore. As such, 2022-23 is likely to see some big ticket disinvestments taking place.